Thread: LCD FAQs

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  1. #16
    Registered User AndyS's Avatar
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    TFT LCD Types

    TN + film
    The 'TN (twisted nematic) + film' display is the most common consumer display type, due to its low production cost and wide development. The pixel response time on modern TN panels is sufficiently fast to most users to avoid the shadow-trail and ghosting artifacts that were a cause for complaint in the past. This fast response time has been a heavily marketed aspect of TN displays, although in most cases this number does not reflect performance across the entire range of possible color transitions. Traditional response times were quoted as an ISO standard black > white transition and did not reflect the speed of transitions across grey tones (a much more common transition for liquid crystals to make in practice). Modern use of RTC (Response Time Compensation – Overdrive) technologies has allowed manufacturers to significantly reduce grey to grey (G2G) transitions, while the ISO response time remains practically unchanged. Response times are now quoted in G2G figures, with 4ms and 2ms now being commonplace for TN Film based models. This marketing strategy, combined with the relatively lower cost of production for TN panels, has led to the dominance of TN in the consumer market.

    The TN display suffers from limited viewing angles, especially in the vertical direction, and most are unable to display the full 16.7 million colors (24-bit truecolor) available from modern graphics cards. These particular panels, with 6 bits per color channel as opposed to 8, can approach 24-bit color using a dithering method which combines adjacent pixels to simulate the desired shade. They can also use FRC (Frame Rate Control), the less conspicuous of the two. FRC quickly cycles pixels over time to simulate a given shade. These color simulation methods are noticeable to most people and discomforting for some. FRC tends to be most noticeable in darker tones. Dithering has the tendency to appear as if the individual pixels of the LCD were actually visible. Overall, color reproduction and linearity on TN panels is poor. Shortcomings in display color gamut (often referred to as a percentage of the NTSC 1953 color gamut) can also be attributed to backlighting technology. It is not uncommon for displays with CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps) based lighting to range from 40% to 76% of the NTSC color gamut, whereas displays utilizing white LED backlights may extend past 100% of the NTSC color gamut – a difference quite perceivable by the human eye.

    With LCD displays, the transmittance of a pixel is typically not linear with the applied voltage, and the sRGB standard for computer monitors requires a specific nonlinear dependence of the amount of emitted light as a function of the RGB value.


    IPS
    IPS (in-plane switching) was developed by Hitachi in 1996 to improve on the poor viewing angles and color reproduction of TN panels. Most also support true 8-bit color. These improvements came at a loss of response time, which was initially on the order of 50ms. IPS panels were also extremely expensive.

    IPS has since been superseded by S-IPS (Super-IPS, Hitachi in 1998), which has all the benefits of IPS technology with the addition of improved pixel refresh timing. Though color reproduction approaches that of CRTs, the contrast ratio remains relatively weak. S-IPS technology is widely used in panel sizes of 20" and above. LG and Philips remain one of the main manufacturers of S-IPS based panels.

    AS-IPS – Advanced Super IPS, also developed by Hitachi in 2002, improves substantially on the contrast ratio of traditional S-IPS panels to the point where they are second only to some S-PVAs. AS-IPS is also a term used for NEC displays (e.g., NEC LCD20WGX2) based on S-IPS technology, in this case, developed by LG.Philips.
    A-TW-IPS – Advanced True White IPS, developed by LG.Philips LCD for NEC, is a custom S-IPS panel with a TW (True White) color filter to make white look more natural and to increase color gamut. This is used in professional/photography LCDs.
    H-IPS – Released sometime late 2006, was the H-IPS panel which is an evolution of the IPS panel which improves upon its predecessor, the S-IPS panel. The H-IPS panel can be seen in the NEC LCD2690WUXi, Mitsubishi RDT261W 26″ LCD, Planar PX2611W and Apple's newest Aluminum 24" iMac.
    So to sum up, the pros/cons of the H-IPS over the S-IPS:

    Pros:

    Much less backlight bleed.
    No purple hue visible at an angle
    Backlight bleed improves looking at an angle
    Less noise or glitter seen on the panel surface (smoother surface)
    Cons:

    Still some backlight bleed in areas that are green.
    Viewing angles may have sacrificed in order to improve pros.

    Image of a (switched on) transreflective color TFT LCD taken under a microscope with reflected light illumination lamp off (top, self-illumination only) and on (bottom).Fringe Field Switching is a technique to accomplish wider viewing angle and transmittance on IPS displays.


    MVA
    MVA (multi-domain vertical alignment) was originally developed in 1998 by Fujitsu as a compromise between TN and IPS. It achieved fast pixel response (at the time), wide viewing angles, and high contrast at the cost of brightness and color reproduction. Modern MVA panels can offer wide viewing angles (second only to S-IPS technology), good black depth, good color reproduction and depth, and fast response times thanks to the use of RTC technologies. There are several "next generation" technologies based on MVA, including AU Optronics' P-MVA and A-MVA, as well as Chi Mei Optoelectronics' S-MVA.

    Analysts predicted that MVA would corner the mainstream market, but instead, TN has risen to dominance. A contributing factor was the higher cost of MVA, along with its slower pixel response (which rises dramatically with small changes in brightness). Cheaper MVA panels can also use dithering/FRC.


    PVA
    PVA (patterned vertical alignment) and S-PVA (super patterned vertical alignment) are alternative versions of MVA technology offered by Samsung. Developed independently, it offers similar features to MVA, but boasts contrast ratios as high as 3000:1. Value-oriented PVA panels often use dithering/FRC, while S-PVA panels all use at least 8-bit color and do not use any color simulation methods. Some newer S-PVA panels offered by Eizo offer 10-bit color internally, which enables gamma and other corrections with reduced banding. PVA and S-PVA offer good black depth, wide viewing angles and S-PVA also offer fast response times using modern RTC technologies.
    Intel i7-3770k | ASUS P8Z77-V-DELUXE | Kingston Hyper-X 2000MHz DDR3 8GB Kit Dual Channel | EIZO FORIS FS2333 IPS LED-LCD | MSI R7970 Lightning Twin Frozr IV 3GB single card | Samsung 20x SATA DVD-RW Drive | WD VelociRaptor(DHTZ) 1TB 10kRPM SATA HDD | Samsung SpinPoint F1 750GB SATA-II HDD | Creative SoundBlaster Z | Creative MegaWorks 550THX | Silverstone Strider 850W Modular PSU | Windows 7 Professional 64 bit

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  2. #17
    Registered User AndyS's Avatar
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    LCD Panel Technology Type and Characteristics

    TN film (Twisted Nematic)
    - low manufacturing/retail costs
    - restrictive viewing angles
    - fast pixel response times
    - dead pixels display white. Stuck pixels display RGB colors
    - lower contrast levels means blacks are not as dark as VA based panels
    - lower color reproduction

    IPS (In Plane Switching)
    - improved viewing angles over TN
    - very good color reproduction
    - slower pixel response times than TN
    - dead pixels display black
    - lower contrast levels means blacks are not as dark as VA based panels

    Super-IPS (S-IPS)
    - same as IPS except ...
    - likely best color reproduction of all TFT
    - less expensive to produce than IPS
    - improved pixel response
    VA (Vertical Alignment) Technologies

    MVA (Multidomain Vertical Alignment)
    - compromise between TN and IPS technologies
    - superior color reproduction over TN but not as good as IPS
    - very good viewing angles but less than IPS
    - higher contrast than TN or S-IPS means very good blacks
    - dead pixels are black
    - slower pixel response than TN or IPS
    - details can be lost when directly viewing dark areas

    Premium-MVA (P-MVA)
    - same as MVA except ...
    - "overdrive" technology increases pixel response but still slower than TN
    - may have slightly degraded color reproduction due to "overdrive" process
    PVA (Patterned VA)
    - same as MVA except ...
    - larger viewing angles
    - higher contrast levels means darkest blacks
    Super-PVA (S-PVA)
    - same as PVA except ...
    - “Magic Speed” (the Samsung equivalent to Overdrive) improves pixel response
    - slightly improved color reproduction
    - slightly improved viewing angles
    Intel i7-3770k | ASUS P8Z77-V-DELUXE | Kingston Hyper-X 2000MHz DDR3 8GB Kit Dual Channel | EIZO FORIS FS2333 IPS LED-LCD | MSI R7970 Lightning Twin Frozr IV 3GB single card | Samsung 20x SATA DVD-RW Drive | WD VelociRaptor(DHTZ) 1TB 10kRPM SATA HDD | Samsung SpinPoint F1 750GB SATA-II HDD | Creative SoundBlaster Z | Creative MegaWorks 550THX | Silverstone Strider 850W Modular PSU | Windows 7 Professional 64 bit

    Intel Core2Duo E8400 (3Ghz) | Asus P5B-E Plus | Kingston 4x 1GB DDR2-667 Rams Dual Channel | Philips 220CW 22" Wide LCD| MSI Radeon HD7870 2GB OC | LG 22x SATA DVD-RW Drive | Western Digital VelociRaptor(HLFS) 150GB 10kRPM SATA HDD 16MB | Samsung 80GB SATA HDD | Samsung 400GB IDE HDD | Creative Audigy 2 ZS | 2.1 speakers/subwoofer | iCute 627 & Seasonic S12II 520W PSU

  3. #18
    Registered User AndyS's Avatar
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    Purchasing Considerations - WHY GAMERS' LCDs are TOTAL CRAP***

    TN Gamers
    Considered a "gamers" panel due to it's fast pixel response times which reduces trailing images know as "ghosting". However, this advantage has been reduced by new technologies to accelerate pixel response times in other panel types. Colors and contrast tend to be weak and blacks are not truly dark. Viewing angles are significantly limited. However, monitors based on this technology tend to be inexpensive.

    IPS / S-IPS Graphics Work or Web Browsing
    Considered to have the best color reproduction of all panel types, these panels are well suited for graphics work or web browsing. Pixel response time is also good but slower than the TN "gamers" panel. Contast and blacks are also less dark than VA panels but viewing angles are excellent.

    MVA / P-MVA / PVA / S-PVA Compromise for All-Around Use
    These panels are a compromise between the fast pixel response times of the TN panel and the excellent color reproduction of the IPS panels. Contrast and blacks are best of all the panel types. Viewing angles are similar but slightly inferior to IPS.
    Last edited by AndyS; Feb 21st, 08 at 02:12 AM.
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    Intel Core2Duo E8400 (3Ghz) | Asus P5B-E Plus | Kingston 4x 1GB DDR2-667 Rams Dual Channel | Philips 220CW 22" Wide LCD| MSI Radeon HD7870 2GB OC | LG 22x SATA DVD-RW Drive | Western Digital VelociRaptor(HLFS) 150GB 10kRPM SATA HDD 16MB | Samsung 80GB SATA HDD | Samsung 400GB IDE HDD | Creative Audigy 2 ZS | 2.1 speakers/subwoofer | iCute 627 & Seasonic S12II 520W PSU

  4. #19
    Registered User AndyS's Avatar
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    NEW IPS-Pro LCD panel type

    Hitachi Displays, Ltd., the leading developer of cutting-edge LCD technology, have announced an exclusive cooperation that will bring the latest In-Plane Switching LCD technology (IPS-Pro) to the healthcare imaging market.

    IPS-Pro provides radiologists with unprecedented color image quality, a DICOM-calibrated luminance of 800 cd/m², and a contrast ratio of 800:1 over the widest possible viewing angle. This combination of color imaging capabilities with performance characteristics previously only possible on dedicated grayscale LCDs

    About IPS-Pro
    IPS-Pro features the most advanced viewing characteristics of all LCD architectures on the market. Compared to Hitachi Displays’ current IPS technology, IPS-Pro improves light transfer by a factor 1.25 and contrast ratio by a factor 2. More importantly, IPS-Pro has the advantage that it keeps a diagnostic contrast ratio (> 400:1) over a substantial larger viewing cone then any other technology. With IPS-Pro, this angle is 120°, which is nearly twice the value achieved by other technologies. These unique characteristics turn the medical displays into a perfect solution for multi-user viewing.
    Intel i7-3770k | ASUS P8Z77-V-DELUXE | Kingston Hyper-X 2000MHz DDR3 8GB Kit Dual Channel | EIZO FORIS FS2333 IPS LED-LCD | MSI R7970 Lightning Twin Frozr IV 3GB single card | Samsung 20x SATA DVD-RW Drive | WD VelociRaptor(DHTZ) 1TB 10kRPM SATA HDD | Samsung SpinPoint F1 750GB SATA-II HDD | Creative SoundBlaster Z | Creative MegaWorks 550THX | Silverstone Strider 850W Modular PSU | Windows 7 Professional 64 bit

    Intel Core2Duo E8400 (3Ghz) | Asus P5B-E Plus | Kingston 4x 1GB DDR2-667 Rams Dual Channel | Philips 220CW 22" Wide LCD| MSI Radeon HD7870 2GB OC | LG 22x SATA DVD-RW Drive | Western Digital VelociRaptor(HLFS) 150GB 10kRPM SATA HDD 16MB | Samsung 80GB SATA HDD | Samsung 400GB IDE HDD | Creative Audigy 2 ZS | 2.1 speakers/subwoofer | iCute 627 & Seasonic S12II 520W PSU

  5. #20
    Razif1055
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    Hmm,,,so whats the best brand for best sharpness...a "good" response is enuf for me..."fastest" is not neccessary..and also no "bleedings" etc? Was thinking viewsonic...any thoughts?

  6. #21
    hi,

    thanks for this comprehensive list, it really helps

  7. #22
    ┼ MR. BRAIN ┼ Kimutaku's Avatar
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    Unhappy How to recover 1 green dot from my samsung 226bw lcd..

    my lcd samsung 226bw just brought not long ago and used for almost 6 months and now suddenly have 1 green dot on the center right side of my lcd Sian really heartpain. Onli 6 months den got dead pixel le.

    Is samsung lcd quality really that bad nowadays? last time i use the old samsung lcd 17" for almost 2 year not even 1 dead pixel.

    And i don think the samsung warranty can help me cos it is not more den 7 dead pixel... more sad...

    Wat do i need do to repair the green dot to normal?

    I already call samsung hotline and ask for the technician to come down take a look at my lcd. Do u guys think the samsung technician will repair back the dead pixel? Is it possible? Cos i don want to wait until 7 dead pixel den send it for panel change...

    Hope i can solve this problem asap cos i really love my lcd a lot

    Really Need some advice from u guys. Thanks

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  8. #23
    Don't think deal pixel can repair back lah. I got a 17" Dell and 19" BenQ LCD. So far no issues from them yet.
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  9. #24
    hi guys on any recommendation on 22" MVA / P-MVA / PVA / S-PVA panel? budget < $600
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  10. #25

    24" LCD Comparison

    Here's a pricelist and basic spec comparison I did for the comex show when i was trying to buy one. For the benefit of others. If anyone wants to continue updating this file, be my guest. Just PM me.



    BTW: I ended up with 1x ACER P243W. And ordered a DELL ULTRASHARP.

  11. #26
    vr-zone.com alpha1ma's Avatar
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    nice table..2408 rox..
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  12. #27
    woot elu's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by desaturated View Post
    hi guys on any recommendation on 22" MVA / P-MVA / PVA / S-PVA panel? budget < $600

    No point. All 22 inch panels are TN. For your budget, maybe you wan consider a 2nd hand 2407WFP or a 2007WFP. S-PVA and S-IPS panels respectively.

  13. #28
    無名™ 無名's Avatar
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    very useful, thanks for ur time.



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  14. #29
    i notice the topic on contrast ratio has been missed out...

    because contrast ratio is very misleading, I've found a useful article in explaining it..

    i've taken the gist of it in points, and if you guys have time go read it

    Intro: The latest craze in the video industry is to play with contrast performance numbers. 6,000:1 for video projectors is becoming quite common. For LCD TVs, some manufactures are talking about dynamic contrast ratios of 10,000:1. And with plasma and LCD displays ...5,000:1 ...10,000:1? No, a more! 15,000:1 is the standard in the game. And these numbers are still growing.

    Surely, we all love numbers - the bigger the better - BUT do these BIG contrast performance figures really mean something in the end?

    Definition: Contrast is the ratio between the white and black parts in an image. The larger the contrast ratio of a display device, the greater is the difference between the brightest whites and the darkest blacks a video display or projector can show.

    Quotes:
    The complete absence of stray light in a room is a critical issue... this is an extremely rare situation unless one is making use of a controlled environment... a dedicated home theater with black painted walls....

    ...Black can only be as black as the projection screen surface is in the ambient light present... if the room is not pitch dark, the screen surface will reflect some light... turning black into dark gray,reducing image contrast ratio.
    ....with the light emitted by just one candle in a room - that's just one LUX - there would not be any difference between a 500:1 and a 5000 or even a 10,000:1 contrast ratio!
    Your eyes are the limiting factor!

    ...A 'dark-adapted' eye would be able to see a faint star in the sky - but this dark adoption process by the eye takes 30 minutes or so to complete - provided you haven't been exposed to bright sunlight during the day, otherwise, it may take even up to one hour for full adaptation to take place. Looking at a bright subject by a dark adapted eye would simply kill your night vision
    http://www.practical-home-theater-gu...ast-ratio.html
    Look to the light of the evening sky
    where shadows cast upon our eyes...

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  15. #30
    lol new screen type from samsung called pls . anyone tried it yet? the screens cost about 880 usd on ncix for a 27 inch

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